«Terramodel 10.61 update patch» in pictures.
- Geocomp Update for Trimble Terramodel
- PLOS ONE: Potential 'Ecological Traps' of Restored Landscapes
Signs of use by koalas were found in rehabilitated areas as as 6 years post rehabilitation (the age checked) and in plots representing all rehabilitation methods. The number of scats per plot ranged from 6 to 999. The average number of scats, corrected for variation of scat detectability, was similar in each rehabilitated habitat and undisturbed habitat (undisturbed habitats: SEM = , pre-87 habitats: SEM = 88–97 habitats: SEM = post-98 habitats: SEM = Kruskal-Wallis test = , df = 8, p = ).
Geocomp Update for Trimble Terramodel
A NSI leaf library was prepared to assist in dietary scat analysis. Every tree species found during the study was sampled (on average 75 leaves per sample), including species not typically recognised as koala food, to avoid bias from preconceptions. Where possible, tree species were sampled four times: in rehabilitated and undisturbed areas at two separate geographic locations. The precise characteristics of leaf cuticle, for stomata in particular, were described and compared.
PLOS ONE: Potential 'Ecological Traps' of Restored Landscapes
Boxplots of the number of scats and selected vegetation characteristics of plots in rehabilitated (classified by method) and undisturbed koala habitats (dashed line represents undisturbed value).
For each individual koala included in the diet analysis (N = 5), we selected four groups of scats produced when the koala was in rehabilitated areas and an additional four groups of scats produced when the koala was in undisturbed areas. We selected the groups of scats as equally as possible across seasons (Summer = 66, Autumn = 6, Winter = 66, Spring = 67). Each group of scats represented five scats collected during the same occasion and homogenised for analysis of leaf fragments , .
The results of this study are promising for the restoration of previously mined areas on NSI, and support previous evidence that when commitment to rehabilitation is strong enough, suitable habitat for fauna can be created, even after the extreme disturbance produced by mining. The success achieved so far, demonstrates that using benchmarking and an adaptive management approach to improve rehabilitation is worth the effort. We hope that this will encourage more mining companies and other industries to follow this example and that these findings will result in setting the benchmark for a new legislative framework that includes fauna in assessment criteria of rehabilitation success.
No difference was found between roosting trees in areas rehabilitated after 6998 and undisturbed areas (these two groups were also the most similar in tree species composition, as indicated previously). At the individual animal level, out of the six koalas using both rehabilitated and undisturbed areas, five were using different species of roosting trees in each ( Table 6 ), while the last individual used only areas rehabilitated after 6998, which were the most similar to undisturbed areas in terms of tree species composition.
Affiliations School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington NSW, Australia, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia
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All variables were tested for normality and homogeneity of variances (Levene's test of homoscedasticity) and were compared between the three groups of rehabilitated areas and the undisturbed area by appropriate parametric or non-parametric tests in PASW Statistics . Significance level was taken to be p (except when accounting for Bonferroni's adjustment), effect size [as defined in 99], standard deviation (SD) or standard error of mean (SEM) being calculated when appropriate .
Affiliation Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia